Tanpura is used in Carnatic and Hindustani music which is a drone instrument. Adharaswara is the base note which creates an aesthetic ambiance in the concert. Tanpura can make all the seven notes of the gamut. It doesn’t provide specific notes or rhythm; it can only provide a circle of certain pitches that don’t produce melody on its own.
Tanjore style is used by Carnatic musicians, Hindustani musicians used the Miraj style ad soloists used the Tamburi which is a flatter resonator. The dried gourd is used for making Miraj Style while wood is used to make Tanjore style.
In Carnatic music, it’s called tambura. There are two uses of Tanpura; firstly it creates a drone that relates to the raga. Secondly, the raga that involves the consonant and dissonant tones is produced which elates satisfaction, followed by tension, excitement, and later unrest. Eventually, every note creating tension should be resolved into rest.
The soundbox is the hollow part of the tanpura its called the table the tumba and gulu which are the gourd and neck heel respectively. The resonator carries the vibrations of the strings through the bridge and the table that is the resonating plank. The vibrations are forced inside the tumba which gives the amplification and projects the basic tone.
The Spanish cedar or teak is used to make tanpuras. A kiln should be used to dry the wood. There are male and female tanpuras that have slight differences in the measurements of these two tanpuras.
The French Sheller along with a spirit base is used for polished and made smooth by sandpaper.15 days are needed for the polish to dry and then the pegs and bridges are fitted. The staghorn is used to make the bridge and nuts, and the pegs are made of rosewood. The tanpuras body is decorated by wooden leaf patterns. Three steel metal strings and fourth sting is made of brass.
Jackwood is used to make Carnatic tamburas. Veena is similar to tambura without the second gourd. A large 10-18 inches bowl is present. The slightly convex body comprises of 3 ½ feet to 5 feet. Nowadays portable tanpuras are made to make it compact to produce ambient clear tone.
The new tanpura is designed for producing the best sound tone and volume. The soundbox is made without gourd and neck heel. It’s made from single wood and carved to function as tumba that is 38 ½ inches long.